Comparison of psychic emergence reactions after (+/-)-ketamine and (+)-ketamine in mice
Liu J, Ji XQ, Zhu XZ.
Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica,
Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences,
Chinese Academy of Sciences,
555 Zu Chong Zhi Road,
Zhangjiang Hi-Tech Park,
Pudong, Shanghai 201203, China.
Life Sci. 2006 Mar 13;78(16):1839-44.


Ketamine is a racemic mixture containing equal parts of (+)-ketamine and (-)-ketamine. The ketamine enantiomorphs are different in anesthesia and psychic emergence reactions after anesthesia. Therefore, (+)-ketamine was compared with racemic ketamine in a number of randomized studies in volunteers and patients. However, their relations remain controversial. In the present studies, the psychic emergence reactions after injection of (+/-)-ketamine and (+)-ketamine were compared in mice. At equimolar doses, the (+)-isomers elicited episodes of hypnosis nearly 1.4-fold more potent than those of the racemic ketamine. After the administration of equihypnotic doses of (+)-ketamine and (+/-)-ketamine, the posthypnotic stimulation of locomotor activity, stereotype behavior and 5-HT-induced head-twitch response by the (+)-enantiomorph was significantly less intense than that of racemic ketamine. In receptor binding test, (+)-ketamine showed a higher affinity for NMDA receptor than that of (+/-)-ketamine, while (+)-ketamine and (+/-)-ketamine showed no affinity for dopamine D2 and serotonin 5-HT2 receptor. These results suggest that the (+)-ketamine has fewer posthypnotic side effects than (+/-)-ketamine when (+)-ketamine and (+/-)-ketamine were administered at equihypnotic dosages and that dopamine D2 and serotonin 5-HT2 receptor were not involved in the effects of (+)-ketamine and (+/-)-ketamine.

Beyond the K-hole
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Ketamine: medical and non-medical use
The role of ketamine in pain management
Low-dose ketamine as a fast-onset, long-acting antidepressant

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